The Indian monsoon is a complex phenomenon influenced by various internal and external factors. El Nino is an external driver that modulates the monsoon’s intensity and spatial distribution. However, it is important to note that El Nino alone cannot account for all monsoonal variations. Rainfall trends in India over 132 years suggest that severe drought and drought-like conditions have always occurred in El Nino years.
In June, the western coast of the country witnessed the high-intensity cyclone Biparjoy. Parts of the country saw delayed and erratic onset of the monsoon. This unpredictability will hurt the agriculture sector. More than three-quarters of India’s farmlands are rain-fed. Weak, erratic, or incessant rainfall will hurt lives and livelihoods. Here’s how India can tackle this challenge?